Category: ENG101







Camping in the mountains compared to camping in the desert

            If you enjoy camping in a motorhome or pitching a tent, camping is for everyone. With hundreds of places to camp it is easy to find something for everyone. We can compare camping in the mountains to camping in the desert in terms of temperature, location, and precipitation.

First, we can compare camping in the mountains to camping in the desert in regards to temperature. Camping in the mountains tend to be much cooler all year compared to camping in the desert. There are many states with mountains to choose from. In the south west of America there are mountains in Arizona, California, and New Mexico. The mountain temperature of Arizona during the winter months is around 70 degrees Fahrenheit during the day with night temperatures often falling below freezing, compared to temperatures reaching over 125 degrees Fahrenheit in the desert during the summer months. The temperature in the California Mountains on average is 8 degrees Fahrenheit during the winter months. The coldest temperature on record was -45 degrees Fahrenheit recorded January 20, 1937, compared to desert temperatures reaching a record high observed anywhere in the United States was 134 degrees Fahrenheit on July 10, 1913. The mountain temperature of New Mexico is around 64 degrees Fahrenheit during the summer to a record -50 degrees Fahrenheit observed on February 1, 1951.

Second, we can compare camping in the mountains to camping in the desert in regards to location. Arizona is located in the southwest of the United States. Arizona covers 113,909 square miles. Arizona is south of Utah, east of California and Nevada, and west of New Mexico. Arizona mountainous region is orientated southeast to northwest with maximum elevations between 9,000 and 12,000 feet above sea level, compared to elevations as low as about 100 feet above sea level in the Lower Colorado River Valley. Nearly the entire state is in the Colorado River drainage basin which empties into the Gulf of California. The world famous Grand Canyon lies within the state of Arizona extending southwestward some 217 miles from the junction of the Little Colorado River (Fox). California is located to the far southwest of the United States. It is located south of Oregon, north of Mexico. California shares its border to the east with Nevada and Arizona, and the Pacific Ocean to the west. From the southern portion of California desert to the eastern portion of the mountains lie within the Great Basin. The Great Basin extends from Utah to the Sierra Nevada and has no surface drainage to the ocean.  New Mexico is located north of Mexico, east of Arizona, west of Texas and south of Colorado (Fuller). The New Mexico the Sangre de Cristo Mountains , the southernmost part of the Rocky Mountains, run roughly north to south along the east side of the Rio Grande compared to the desert that is located in the southwestern corner known as the Bootheel


Last, we can compare camping in the mountains to camping in the desert in regards to precipitation. Rainfall totals throughout Arizona is governed to a great extent by elevation (Munsey).  From November through March, storm systems from the Pacific Ocean cross the state of Arizona. Flood conditions occur infrequently, although heavy thunderstorms during July and August at times cause floods that do considerable local damage. Thunderstorms are often accompanied by strong winds and brief periods of blowing dust prior to the onset of rain.  Hail occurs rather infrequently Floods on the main rivers are mostly limited to the upper basins above storage dams.  Flooding in populated areas is rare. The precipitation occurs more frequent in the higher mountains compared to long droughts in the desert. Rain and snow that occurs in the higher elevation supplies water to the lower elevations of the state. Reservoirs hold the needed water for the desert areas in the lower Salt River Valley (Brewer). Precipitation for the state of California totals in excess of 50 inches per year. The mountain regions of California receive snow all year compared to the desert locations that only receive one third of the states total. Precipitation for the state of New Mexico ranges from thirty-three inches in the mountains compared to ten inches in the southern desert annually. Summer rains fall almost entirely during brief, but frequent intense thunderstorm.

In conclusion, we have compared camping in the mountains to camping in the desert in terms of temperature, location, and precipitation. Camping in the mountains compared to camping in the desert is very different depending on what state you choose to camp in. With the information provided comparing camping in the desert to camping in the mountain we feel you will choose the best location for you camping experience.


Works Cited

Brewer, John. “Arizona Lakes | Lake in Arizona | Canyon | Pleasant | Roosevelt | Apache | Saguaro | Mohave | Havasu.” Arizona Hotels | Arizona Vacation | Attractions | Resorts | Grand Canyon. Arizona Leisure Vacation, 11 Feb. 2008. Web. 21 Nov. 2011. <;.

Fox, Jamie. “Camping Guide – Stories of the Outdoors.” Love The Outdoors – Celebrating Camping, Hiking, and The Great Outdoors. Camping Guide, 03 Apr. 2011. Web. 21 Nov. 2011. <;.

Fuller, Daniel. “Sonoran Desert Climate.” Blue Planet Biomes. Blue Planet, 28 Dec. 2003. Web. 21 Nov. 2011. <;.

Munsey, David. “CLIMATE OF ARIZONA.” Western Regional Climate Center. WRCC, 2001. Web. 21 Nov. 2011. <;.

Travelogue. “Maps of Southwest USA – The American Southwest.” The American Southwest – Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Texas, Utah, Wyoming. Slot Canyons & Travelogue. The America Southwest, May 2008. Web. 01 Dec. 2011. <;.




Cause and Effect


Tempe, Arizona offers a perfect blend of historic preservation and modern renovation, creating a comfortable environment for students and families. The cost of living in Tempe, Arizona is affordable for students and the location is incredible. Tempe, Arizona is in the middle of everywhere students need to go. My family also lives in Tempe, Arizona so living close to them makes my life better since I get to see them regularly.  I live in Tempe, Arizona mainly because of cost, location, and family.

First, while many people are attracted to Tempe by the weather, more important to me is the cost. The weather in Tempe, Arizona ranges in the winter from an average low of 38 degrees Fahrenheit to a winter high of 75 degrees Fahrenheit. Temperatures like these attract people from all over the country. Arizona residents call these people “snow-birds.” The snow-birds come to Tempe, Arizona to get away from their colder climates. The summer temperature chases them away. Tempe, Arizona summer temperatures range from 105 degrees Fahrenheit to 65 degrees Fahrenheit in the evenings (Morris).

However, the weather is not one of my many reasons for living in Tempe, Arizona. The cost of living for me in Tempe, Arizona is very affordable for me. My parents live in Tempe and I take up rent in one of their bedrooms. The cost of rent monthly for me is only a mere one dollar for rent and one dollar for my utilities.

Second, while most of my friends live in Tempe, Arizona I live in Tempe because of its location. Tempe, Arizona is located west of Mesa, east of Phoenix, north of Chandler and south of Scottsdale. Tempe, Arizona location is perfect for anything you might want to experience.   (Google)

With 3% of Tempe residents biking to work, Tempe has one of the highest percentages of bicycle commuters in the country due to consistent support from the Tempe City Council, Arizona State University, and non-profit organizations like the Tempe Bicycle Action Group (Benson). Tempe is on the right track to becoming one of the leading bike communities in the country. One of the best parks for bike riding enthusiast is located three blocks from my house named Kiwanis Park.

Tempe is located in the middle of the entire metropolitan area. Arizona State University is located in Tempe, Arizona. Most students who attend Arizona State University prefer living in the dorm rooms located on campus in Tempe, Arizona (Drew).

I attend Mesa Community College conveniently located on the border of Tempe and Mesa. Some of the best places to shop are located in Tempe. With more than 200 commercial, retail stores, many near freeways, bus routes, or the airport, employees and customers can reach businesses quickly. Tempe businesses can access six freeways, an international airport just five minutes from downtown and a variety of alternative transportation methods. Tempe provides quick, convenient and environmentally conscientious transportation. Tempe is one of three Valley cities to be included in Arizona’s first light rail line, demonstrating its commitment to creating better urban ecology and easier commuting. The benefit of living in Tempe, Arizona has made my life easier with attending school. The commute time is under ten minutes from my house to Mesa Community College. If I ever have issues with transportation the location of my home in Tempe reduces the walking distance to school. If you’re a baseball fan, the location of Tempe is very practical with multiple spring training facilities nearby. During the spring most major league baseball teams use Tempe and surrounding cities.

Last, while Tempe has been voted All American City in 2003 (Reynolds), my family has made it their home for many years. Living close to my family makes it convenient for family outings; more important to me is my family being there to watch my child while I attend school. My family has lived in the same home for 40 years. Tempe as so did most of my friends. My family supports me attending school by allowing me to live in their home. My childhood friends have purchased homes in Tempe, Arizona. Living close to them makes our friendship better. My family and friends normally have something fun going on at their home

In conclusion, I live in Tempe, Arizona, mainly because of cost, location and family. The cost is unbeatably low and the location is perfect for all the places I need to go. Living close to my family and my school makes the cost to live in Tempe beneficial to me. There is no better place to live other than Tempe, Arizona.


Works Cited

Benson, George. “Location Overview.” Tempe in Touch. Tempe Government, 1994. Web. 22 Nov. 2011. <;.

Drew, Collin. “Best Places to Live in Tempe, Arizona.” Best Places to Live | Compare Cost of Living, Crime, Cities, Schools and More. Sperling’s BestPlaces. SperlingViews, 6 Nov. 2010. Web. 21 Nov. 2011. <;.

Google. “Tempe, Arizona.” Google Maps. Map Data, 2011. Web. 30 Nov. 2011. <;.

Morris, Micheal. “Tempe, Arizona Weather, Climate | Average Monthly Temperatures.” Tempe Real Estate, Homes, Attractions, Things To Do in Tempe | Restaurants, Hotels, Motels. Life in Tempe, 2009. Web. 21 Nov. 2011. <;.

Reynolds, John. “All America City 2003.” Tempe in Touch. National Civic League (NCL), 2003. Web. 21 Nov. 2011. <;






Solar Fares destroying Earth 2012-2015

            Satellites destroyed and power outages country wide? I have been following Astrophysicist Alexi Dmitiev’s research for N.A.S.A. he is certain there is scientific evidence that supports devastating possibilities to occur in 2012 (Phillips). More Americans should take the time to research more on 2012 for themselves.

First, while there are movies and books about the end of the Earth happening soon, there has not been any conclusive evidence to support this for sure.  Astrophysicist at N.A.S.A research laboratories have reported they believe our Sun will be experiencing an increase in solar flares during 2012-2015 (Taylor). The sun releases solar flares all the time. Some people in the northern hemisphere see the magnificent display in the sky called the Aurora Borealis. Some scientists believe the solar flares we should experience in 2012 will be similar to the solar flares in 1852. If flares of that magnitude happen now civil engineers expect populated cities will be without power and running water for several months (Photos). Electricity companies refuse this idea they believe the upgrades they have made to the national power grid will prevent any significant power failures.

Second, while there are always solar flares being released from the sun, N.A.S.A. and other space agencies have spent trillions of dollars to monitor the suns activity with hope for an early warning system (Brown). Many experts believe spending that kind of money to give us a 6 minute warning is a waste of money. Alexi Dmitiev says, “Satellite observation is necessary” we can learn more from watching the sun with satellites then we can with a telescope (Lloyd). Although we do get a different way to view our sun we should be more concerned with what is happening right now on Earth. Most people don’t think about the possibilities of solar flares destroying Earth, they are more concerned with feeding their children and paying their bills.

Last, while archeologists are discovering Earth has experienced planet wide extinction before, most scientists believe we have the technology to survive, if it happens again. Archeologists disagree; there is evidence of civilizations that achieved a higher technology then we have in modern time. The Mayans, for example achieved the ability to figure complex mathematic understanding of our Universe, and built a calendar based on our planetary location in the Galaxy. With this calendar they were able to predict seasons, climate change and cycles of the Earth. Scientists have disputed the Mayan Calendar until recently. The satellites we have in space have confirmed where we are located in our galaxy is identical to what the Mayans calculated. That has many people wondering how accurate the calendar might be. The calendar shows that on December 21, 2012 the earth will go thru significant change. Luckily, NASA is here to rescue us from what evil may come out of our sun.  NASA is researching on a new tool/method in which the experts think that solar flare can be predicted with more accuracy and the degrees of damages by a huge and rare solar flare can be scaled and reported to power companies.  It’s much like we are going to have a better weatherman, but in this case we’re going to have a better solar-flare-man.

In sum, NASA uses various cutting-edge technologies in its field to form a program what they named Solar Shield as a precise warning system for earth when a dangerous solar flare does occur. The extensiveness of the damages is depending on the scale of the damages, and it may take months to recover.  Talking about money, the damages of a massive blackout that goes on for months may cost in trillions of dollars.  Like weather, solar flare is unpredictable, but solar flare may be a lot more unpredictable since we don’t have enough data and knowledge about solar flare. Even though the prediction might turn out to be a false alert, many power companies may not want to take the risks of having to lose even more money when their power grids receive extensive damages.  This is why we have people doing the research of historical events N.A.S.A. along with other space agencies are spending so much money. We will increase our ability to be educated better for incase of a huge solar flare occurs. Modern day religions disagree; they don’t believe anyone can accurately predict our future. The Prophets of the Mormon Church have been telling people for decades to have an adequate food supply for their families in case of emergency.

However you look at it we are human and we have been put on this Earth for a reason. We have survived everything that has happened since our creation and we will continue to survive as our Heavenly Father wants us to. Some people don’t put their faith in God, they choose and other way of beliefs. Regardless of your faith the Sun is a very powerful creation that nobody on Earth can control. We are very lucky to have made our world intelligent and educated. Thanks to the inventions of mankind we have the ability to research and draw conclusions of our past. Our advancement in technology has made it possible for those to see into the future to give us a warning system if our Sun does send some critical solar storms our way.

In conclusion, more Americans should take the time to research more on 2012 for themselves. You can take the evidence of scientific study or ancient civilizations the fact remains the year 2012 will happen on schedule. Nobody has given me any evidence to support the future is already determined. I have found faith in gospel that comforts me, so if solar flares do hit the Earth as some predict I will know I am right where I am supposed to be according to God.

Works Cited

Brown, Dwayne. “NASA-Funded Study Reveals Hazards of Severe Space Weather.” NASA – Home. NASA Headquarters, 18 Oct. 2011. Web. 17 Nov. 2011. <;.

Lloyd, Andy. “Solar Storms and 2012.” 18 Oct. 2011. Web. 17 Nov. 2011. <>.

Phillips, Tony. “Solar Storm Warning.” NASA Science. Science@NASA, 18 Oct. 2011. Web. 17 Nov. 2011. <;.

Richardson, John. “Severe Solar Storms Could Disrupt Earth This Decade NOAA.” International Business News, Financial News, Market News, Politics, Forex, Commodities – International Business Times – International Business Times, 18 Oct. 2011. Web. 17 Nov. 2011. <;.

Taylor, Kate. “SOLAR STORMS TAKE DOWN POWER GRIDS.” TG Daily | Technology, Science, Entertainment, and Business News. 18 Oct. 2011. Web. 17 Nov. 2011. <;.

Solution Paper 2011





Drug abuse in America

Four decades, one trillion dollars and hundreds of thousands of lives later, we must accept that drug abuse is something we all have to deal with. June 17, 2011 marked a little-known, yet significant, anniversary in America. President Richard Nixon initiated the “war on drugs”, and denounced drug abuse in America as “public enemy No.1”. We can solve the problem of drug abuse in America mainly by treating, preventing, and educating.

First, we can solve the problem of drug abuse in America by treating. Efforts to understand how to improve substance abuse treatment have improved the delivery of medication and behavioral therapy, especially when combined, are important in the treatment process (Curtin). Medications offer help in suppressing withdrawal symptoms during detoxification. Medications can be used to help reestablish normal brain function and to prevent relapse and diminish cravings. Behavioral treatments help patients engage in the treatment process, modify their attitudes and behaviors related to drug abuse, and increase healthy life skills (NIDA). These treatments can also enhance the effectiveness of medications and help people stay in treatment longer. Most of the programs involve individual or group drug counseling. Drug counseling is very critical for those people who need resources and friends that are dealing with outpatient recovery. For those people with stronger addiction issues there are inpatient recovery hospitals. The problem with inpatient recovery hospitals is the cost to patients is much higher.

Second, we can solve the problem of drug abuse in America by preventing. Prevention is most promising when it is directed at impressionable youth. Adolescents are most susceptible to the allure of illicit drugs. Delaying or preventing the first use of illegal drugs, alcohol, and tobacco is essential. Not only does hazardous drug use put young people at risk of negative short-term experiences, but those who do not use illegal drugs, alcohol, or tobacco during adolescence are less likely to develop a chemical-dependency problem. Drug use prevention programs are effective when they respond to the needs of a community, involve all the relevant sectors and are based on scientific evidence; effective programs should also incorporate strong monitoring and evaluation components. Prevention programs can be designed to intervene as early as preschool to address risk factors for drug abuse, such as aggressive behavior, poor social skills, and academic difficulties. Most programs are cost effective or covered by insurance. Schools have been an important setting to reach many children and adolescents with prevention activities (UNODC). Prevention activities are beneficial to keep people focused on ways to keep themselves from drug abuse.

Adolescents rarely seek help for problems related to alcohol and other drug use. Referrals by juvenile courts are too often the first intervention. By this time, substance abuse has contributed to delinquent behavior, violence, and high risk activities like unprotected sex and criminal behavior.  Adolescents with alcohol and drug problems are not adequately served in most existing drug-treatment programs designed for adults. Many health care professionals lack the training to identify the symptoms of substance abuse. Most medical students, for example, receive little education in this area. If physicians and other primary-care managers were more attuned to drug-related problems, abuse could be identified and treated earlier. The need for community-based treatment from educated adults with a drug history is the most effective in treating and protecting our youth from a lifetime of drug problems. The number of adults with successful treatment skills is very rare, most often those adults are in prison for serious crimes.

Last, we can solve the problem of drug abuse in America by educating. Youth education in general about drug prevention is the most effective among the youth. In addition to deterring some initiations completely, drug prevention programs help people who use drugs to use smaller quantities. While all parents are critical influencers of children, parents of children aged eight to twelve are especially influential. Children in this age group normally condemn drug use. Such attitudes and attendant behavior are easily reinforced by involved parents. In most cases parents who wait to guide their children away from drugs until their teenage years are influenced by peers or may have started using alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs, and decrease their ability to positively influence children. Drug abuse education offers students and adults the medical and pharmacology training that is essential to survival in America’s war on drugs. The sooner people begin to teach the right way to use drugs for medical purposes, then the sooner that drug abuse can be transformed into an insignificant aspect of drug administration.  Drug abuse education provides students and adults with the knowledge and discipline needed for handling drugs (Gicomeng). In a drug-oriented society, information on the pharmacology of drugs and alcohol is a basic educational need. Without an education on drug’s and the symptoms they cause, you lose the ability to protect your children and the effective steps on the best ways to treat with drug abuse issues (Glos).

In conclusion we can solve the problem of drug abuse in America mainly by treating, preventing, and educating. If we are successful America will enter the next decade without being at war on drugs, and far fewer lives will be lost to drug abuse in Amercia.

Works Cited

Curtin, Christina. “Infelicitous 40: The Anniversary Of The U.S.’s War On Drugs – Analysis.” Eurasia Review. Deluxe Indomagz, 30 June 2011. Web. 01 Dec. 2011. <’s-war-on-drugs-analysis&gt;.

Gicomeng, Richard. “Seven Steps to Stop Drug Abuse.” Propelling Invention. Gicomeng, Oct. 2011. Web. 01 Dec. 2011. <;.

Glos, Niki. “Student Committee on Drug Abuse Education.” University of Maryland School of Pharmacy. SCODAE, 2009. Web. 02 Dec. 2011. <;.

NIDA. “Treatment Approaches for Drug Addiction – InfoFacts – NIDA.” National Institute on Drug Abuse. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 09 Sept. 2009. Web. 01 Dec. 2011. <;.

UNODC. “Drug Abuse Prevention.” United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. UNODC, 2011. Web. 01 Dec. 2011. <;.

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